(Elective) Weather & climate

E1: What is the Earth’s radiation budget?

Short wave radiation短波輻射Electromagnetic wave電磁波
Electromagnetic spectrum電磁波譜UV radiation紫外綫輻射
Visible light可見光Infrared radiation紅外綫輻射
Sensible heat感熱Long wave radiation長波輻射
Scatter散射Albedo反射率
Radiation budget輻射收支Sensible heat transfer感熱輸送
Latent hear transfer潛熱輸送Conduction傳導
Convection對流Condensation凝結
Counter-radiation逆輻射Surplus budget收支過剩
Deficit budget收支虧損

E2: What are climatic elements? What are their distribution patterns?

Equatorial low赤道低壓Polar high極地高壓
Subtropical high亞熱帶高壓Subpolar low副極地低壓
Coriolis force科里奧利力Planetary wind system行星風系
Polar easterlies極地東風帶Westerlies西風帶
Trade wind信風帶Polar front極鋒
Inter-tropical convergence zone熱帶輻合帶Water-holding capacity持水量
Dew point露點Condensation level凝結高度
Condensation nuclei凝結核Relief rain地形雨
Convection rain對流雨Frontal rain鋒面雨
Windward slope向風坡Leeward slope背風坡
Rain shadow area雨影區Cumulonimbus積雨雲
Evapotranspiration蒸散Hydrosphere水圈
Biosphere生物圈Lithosphere岩石圈
Climatic zone氣候帶

E3: What are climatic zones?

Equatorial climate赤道氣候Tropical continental climate熱帶大陸氣候
Savanna熱帶稀樹草原Arid climate乾旱氣候
Semi-arid climate半乾旱氣候Prairies北美洲中緯度草原
Mediterranean climate地中海氣候Coniferous forest針葉林
Tundra climate凍原氣候Permafrost永久凍土

E4: What is the weather and climate like in Hong Kong?

Typhoon颱風Monsoon季風
Cold surge寒潮Weather chart天氣圖
Anticyclone反氣旋Tropical cyclone熱帶氣旋
Hurricane颶風Eye風眼
Pressure gradient氣壓梯度Pressure gradient force氣壓梯度力
Tropical depression熱帶低氣壓Tropical storm熱帶風暴
Severe tropical storm强烈熱帶風暴Troposphere對流層

E6: What is the relationship between human activity and climatic hazards?

Sandstorm沙塵暴Heat wave熱浪
Meteorological disaster氣象災難Aridity乾旱
Meteorological drought氣象乾旱HEP plant水力發電站
desertification荒漠化Sand dune沙丘
Deforestation濫伐林木Soil erosion土壤侵蝕
Silting淤積Cloud seeding播雲
Desalinizing seawater海水化淡Drip irrigation水滴灌溉
Drought-resistant crop抗旱作物Windbreak防風林
Shelter belt防護林Distillation蒸餾
Airborne particle經空氣傳播的粒子Microbe微生物
Epidemics流行病Cardiovascular disease心血管疾病
Allergy敏感Asthma哮喘
Photosynthesis光合作用Over-cultivation過度耕作
Over-grazing過度放牧Straw checkerboard草方格
Green Great Wall綠色長城Three-North Shelterbelt三北防護林
Crop rotation輪耕Eco-tourism生態旅遊

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