(2) River and coast

Unit 2.1: What is the water cycle? What is a drainage basin?

Water cycle水循環Precipitation降水
Evaporation蒸發Transpiration蒸騰
Condensation凝結Interception截留
Stem flow莖流Drip flow滴流
Overland flow表面徑流Channel flow河道徑流
Surface run-off地表徑流Infiltration下滲
Throughflow表層流Percolation滲透
Ground water flow地下水流Subsurface run-off底層徑流
Drainage basin河盆Tributary支流
Watershed分水嶺Confluence point匯流點
Distributary分流Stream order河流等級
Drainage pattern水系形態

Unit 2.2: What are the major fluvial processes?

Fluvial process河流作用Erosion侵蝕
Transportation搬運Deposition沉積
Discharge流量Velocity流速
Catchment area集水區Permeability透水性
River bank河岸River bed河床
Wetted perimeter濕周Boulder巨礫
Fluvial erosion河流的侵蝕作用Load搬運物
Vertical erosion下蝕Lateral erosion側蝕
Headward erosion溯源侵蝕Solution溶蝕作用
Abrasion磨蝕作用Attrition磨耗作用
Hydraulic action水力作用Weathered風化
Suspension懸移Traction推移
Saltation躍移Sediment沉積物
Silt粉砂Clay粘土
Sorting分選作用

Unit 2.3: How do fluvial processes shape the land?

Upper course上游Middle course中游
Lower course下游Interlocking spur交錯山嘴
Rapid急流Waterfall瀑布
Plunge pool跌水潭Gorge峽谷
Pothole壺穴Slip off slope沖積坡
River cliff河流陡岸Meander曲流
Bluff陡崖Flood plain泛濫平原
Levee天然堤Deferred tributary延長支流
Oxbow lake牛軛湖Braided stream辮狀河
Delta三角洲Alluvium沖積物
Lagoon潟湖Tidal range潮差

Unit 2.4: How does human activity influence and alter river environments?

Silting淤積Overgrazing過度放牧
Over-cultivation過度耕作River dyke河堤
Hydrograph水文曲綫Time lag滯後時間
Eutrophication富養化Retention pond蓄洪池
Diversion channel分流渠Flood wall防洪墻

Unit 2.5: How do waves shape our land?

Sea cliff海崖Tide潮汐
Swash冲流Backwash回流
Constructive wave建設性波浪Destructive wave破壞性波浪
Headland Bay海灣
Longshore drift沿岸漂移Wave-cut platform海蝕平臺
Sea cave海蝕穴Geo海蝕隙
Sea arch海拱Stack海蝕柱
Notch海蝕凹地Spit 沙嘴
Bar沙洲Tombolo連島沙洲

Unit 2.6: How does human activity influence and alter coastal environments?

Sea wall海墻Groyne海堤
Breakwater防波堤Rip-rap抛石護堤
Gabion土籠

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